Cranberries are a sort of plant species or a type of shrub found in American states which are generally evergreen type of shrub. Scientifically it is known as Vaccinium erythrocapum. It is also known as the Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium microcarpum, Vaccinium oxycoccos. It is also known as trailing vines. They are generally found in cool region of northern hemisphere in acidic blogs. They can be going up to the height of 2 meters (7ft) or 5 to 20 cm (2 to 8 inches). It has a thin slender stem, along with evergreen leaves. Their flowers are very attractive with pink color pointing towards out that looks so stylish and distinct reflexes petals. Its fruits are acidic in taste and white in color in first stage but when they are fully grown or when ripe they turn in dark red color which can be eaten. It is a major crop of American states and in some Canadian provinces. Its juices, sauces, jam are some of the favorites of the peoples along with the fruits alone are also sold in the market. The Cranberry sauces are most favorite among all and mostly used in the American as well as Canadian menus along with some of the European festivals occurred in winter. Its specialty is that it is the global functional fruit in the industries, raw or the fruit cranberries are used to be sold in the market by the name of “super fruit” because of its content having nutrients and its antioxidant qualities.
cranberry for diabetes
History of Cranberries
Cranberry is found in 1550, James White Norwood reference to Indians for using cranberries. A book by James Rosier ‘The Land of Virginia’ shows an account of European ashore which met with an Indian land which is full of cranberry. In Plymouth, Massachusetts, Mary Ring has 1633 accounts of husband auctioning petticoats of cranberry dyed for 16 shillings. It is also known as bear berries because bears love to eat them. In 1648, a preacher highlighted a blog “Clear Sunshine of the Gospel” about the difficulties of the Indians to plant cranberries as they all are fond of hunting as well as fishing. In 1633, a pilgrim book of cooking has a recipe of sauce made by cranberries. In 1667, send cranberries filled in 10 barrels, codfish filled in 3 barrels along with corns of Indian flavor to show their anger for coining of Pine tree shilling. In 1669, Captain Richard Cobb was serving of wild turkey with sauce of wild cranberries in his own house. As well as in 1672, an author John Josselyn “New England Rarities Discovered” describes the cranberries by saying that:-
“Cranberries or Bearberries are a sort of small trailing plant which grows in the area of salt marshes which overcome with mosses. The color of the berries are of pale yellow, then it turn to red in color, which grow as a cherry, with the shape of round as well as oval but all of them are hollow from shower with acidic taste. They must be ripped in the month of August as well as September. Cranberry along with blue berry and Concord grape were the three fruits of North America that are grown commercially. It was first used by the Americans who told all that the wild berries were good food for eating. The name of these cranberry comes from the name of the a Pilgrim based on the fruit “cranberry” it is so called as it is of pink color and small flower blooms in the spring with head as well as bill on the Sand hill crane. In 1816, a captain named Henry Hall was the first who got the success to cultivate the cranberries successfully. Till 1871, US firstly form the association of cranberries grower but now a days the US farmers are able to harvest cranberries in approx. 40,000 acres of land each year.
Important acts in the History of production:-
- 1550 – Cranberries are used as a food item, dyes as well as medicine.
- 1620 – Americans used to inform the visitors how to use the cranberries.
- 1683 – Settlers are used to make its juice.
- 1816 - Captain Henry Hall was the first person who cultivated cranberry.
- 1820’s – Export was started to European countries.
- 1838 – Record of bogs on ice sanding as well as for controlling insects along with frost damaging.
- 1930 –Marketing through ocean was started.
- 1947 – Dry harvesting was replaced by hand scooping.
- 1953 – National cropping of millions of barrel.
- 1960’s – First water harvesting was started.
- 1970’s – Joint pest programs of management was introduced.
- 1980’s – International market was developed.
- 1990’s – Intermigrations of cranberry was introduced with other food.
- 1997 – Decline in cost of cranberry.
- 2000’s – Regaining of profitability in cranberry.
Scientific Names and Species of the Cranberries
The cranberries are also known as the American Cranberry, as well as large berry. It is scientifically known as Vaccinium macrocarpon whose explanation must be given as:-
Vaccinium – it is the ancient as well as Latin name of the Blueberry
Macrocarpon – fruit which grown in large area
The cranberries are also known as the rubies of the pines. The scientific classification of the cranberries is as following:-
- Kingdom of the cranberries is: – Plantae.
- Unranked: – Angiosperms, Eudicots, Asterids.
- Order of the cranberries:- Ericales
- Family of the cranberries:- Ericaceae
- Genus of the cranberry:- Vaccinium
- Subgenus of the cranberry:- Oxycoccus
The different species of the cranberries are: – Vaccinium erythrocarpum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium microcarpum, Vaccinium oxycoccos. They are trailing vines of the subgenus which Oxycoccos the genus Vaccinium. In some of other methods to classify the oxycoccos is regarded as genus in its own. The cranberries are some of the major crop for selling in the market.
- Vaccinium erythrocapum or the Oxycocccuserythrocapus also known as the Southern Mountain Cranberry are used to find in the south eastern North America on the high peaks of southern Appalachian Mountains along with in the eastern Asia.
- Vaccinium macrocarpon or the Oxycoccos macrocarpus are also known as the Large cranberry or American cranberry as well as bear berry find in the area of northern North America including Canada and eastern US which is situated on to the North Carolina on the high altitudes. It is slightly different from Vaccinium oxycoccos because its leaves are somewhat bigger than 10-20 mm in size along with its taste is also an apple.
- Vaccinium microcarpum or the oxycoccos microcarpum also known as small cranberry found in the North America, Northern Europe, Northern Asia along with it is different from Viccinium oxycoccos as their leaves are more triangular in shape, along with the stems of the flowers are hairless.
- Vaccinium oxycoccos or the oxycoccos palustris also known as Common cranberry or the Northern cranberry and it is widely spread over the northern hemisphere which have the cool temperature, which also include northern Europe, northern Asia, northern North America. The size of its leave is up to 5-10 mm. The color of the flowers are dark pink, along with a purple spikes in the center, comes on the stems of finely haired. The fruit is like a small berry of pale pink, as well as sharp flavor of acidic with refreshing nature.
Cranberries when eaten or used raw then it is a major source of the polyphenol antioxidants, as well as photochemical which has gone under an active research of possible benefits for the Cardiovascular systems along with the immunity system and it is also an anti-cancer agent which protects an isolated cells of the prostate cancer. Additionally it is very sure that whatever extra things are added to it may not affect the nutrients present in the fruit of the plant. One of the study shows that the juice of it is more suitable for from preventing kidney stones and it also prevent from tooth decaying, as well as plaque because it is fully intrigued by high molecular weight with non-dialyzable material.
One more study shows that while in comparing it with other twenty fruits it has the high amount if the total polyphones. It also has an ability to made a woman secure from the urinary tract infection which may cause from anti-clotting properties. It may also show that the raw cranberries are the rich source of the flavonoids like proanthocyanidins, flavonols as well as quercetin. All these components have shown great effect on anti-cancer agents in vitro. Its tannins property may mix with the proteins along with the possibly digested enzymes, amylase having alpha properties and glucomylase which may result in affected starch hydrolysis.
By one of the research the scientist prove that from the 9584 units for per 100 gm., cranberry has ranked to the top 277th commonly used food in US. It is also proven that the cranberry has the potential advantage to protect bacterial infection from urinary system. It may also protect one from the spinal cord injury that may cause from any bacterial infection. There is also a benefit of the juice consumption formed by cranberry in protecting from the bacterial infections by inhibiting the attachment of bacteria to bladder as well as urethra and the source of infection which may cause from the bacteria come in contact with form outer world. Taking of cranberry juice reduces swelling, prevent blood clots also.
It is also used for the treatment purpose. As it is a rich source of Vitamins thus it can be useful as medicine. It is useful in type-2 diabetes, and in urine infection, cancer, scurvy and many more.
Thus it is useful in many ways as it can be eaten raw as well as it can be used as medicine, along with from which juices, sauces and many more eatable products can be made. Cranberries has a mind blowing way of serving with no cost as it may be kept in the freezer and can be frozen and amazingly it can be stored for nine months and for more time as well. It is also a nutritious fruit containing several beneficial mineral so it is also safe to use. Its main contents are:- carbohydrates, sugar, dietary fiber, fat, protein, water, Vitamin A, beta-carotene, as well as zeaxanthin, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, Vitamin B, folate, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, zinc. Thus it is a value able fruit which can be eaten by all age groups. Raw cranberry can also have consists of dietary fibers, Vitamin C, along with the important dietary minerals, manganese along with the profile of fully balanced micronutrients in some amounts. Cranberry is the rich source of polyphenol antioxidants, and phytochemicals which can help in some cardiovascular system and to improve immunity system.
Side effects of the cranberries when they are used
Cranberry was liked by all the people but excessive use of everything is harmful to everyone. As it is mostly used and its consumption is almost loveable by all but the cranberries are good for having its juice as well as its extracts but excessive use of its juice can results in side effects like too much stomach pain, and diarrhea. Using more than one liter per day for many days may cause in the formation of kidney stones. Some of the precautions as well as warnings might be provide to everyone that must help them in all their life time. During pregnancy while breast-feeding the lady can take cranberry and it will be safe also but one must not have to use direct supplement of dietary containing cranberry items. Cranberry is acidic in nature; it contains some amount of salicylic acid which is as similar as aspirin. So one has to avoid drinking excessive use of juice if, the person has an allergic towards aspirin. If someone was diabetic then the person must remain away from the juice of cranberry. Juice of it contains a big amount of chemical known as oxalate. As the stones in kidney is formed due to combination of oxalate with calcium. If a person is having a history of kidney stones then they must immediately stop using the cranberry juice. Along with if you are taking any medicine with its juice may damage its effect and can cause the liver break down which may affect or can cause side effect. Thus before having the cranberry juice one must consult their doctor or their health care provider. Some of the medicines that may be changed due to the liver are amitriptyline, diazepam, zileuton, celecoxib, diclofenac, fluvastatin, glipizide, ibuprofen, irbesatan, losartan.
Tablets formed by the Cranberry
Cranberry is a form of antique fruit which can only grow under a special type of combination or the factors thus like cranberry juices some of the medicines are also made of it which can be used for some of the other diseases like it can prevent the infection caused by urinary tracts. It can also maintain the treatment of type- 2 diabetes and for neurogical bladder, a disease caused by the bladder. Also it can able to maintain the difficulty occurred in controlling urination. The tablets made by cranberries may help to increase the flow of urine, use to kill germs, speeding the healing of the skin wounds, control or reduce fever. Its tablets are also used to control some of the diseases like chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), scurvy, inflammation of lining round the lungs (pleurisy), as well as cancer. The cranberry tablets are used for the versatility of food, for fabric dying, or as a healing agent. As it is a rich source of Vitamin-C and scurvy is caused by the deficiency of Vitamin-C only thus it is a major effect able source to control the scurvy. Cranberries are a long lasting fruit for which the sailor used to keep it with them on their sailing or voyage which not only prevents them from the diseases but also it is a tasty food which can be stored for long time for many months.
Cranberry is a major commercial crop in US, Europe along with Americas as it is used for commercial purpose for marketing, but regarding the health cranberries are very specific because of its specialty. As the cranberries are a rich source of the Vitamins so it can help in serving many diseases which may be caused due to deficiency of Vitamins. Thus the cranberries are used in the form of tablets. These tablets are used in scurvy, type 2diabetes, neurologically bladder, for urine controlling, healing of the skin wounds, lining around the lungs, as well as for cancer. Urine tracts can be easily controlled by the cranberry as it is the best option of it. So from preventing such diseases one should use the capsules made by the cranberry. As its taste is liked by all thus its capsules are easily consumed by everyone. Its taste is somewhat similar to salicylic acid so it may destroy the acidic functions developed in one’s body. Therefore it is necessary to have it when you are in need of it. By a research also it is proven that if a person is taking a cranberry capsules regularly for more than six months and three times a day, then it is sure that the problem of urinary symptoms may reduce form ones blood level of PSA. It can also prevent the odor of the urine or the sweat. It can also help in healing up the wounds on the skin. Pleurisy can also be treated by it. Cancer treatment is also available. CFS chronic fatigue syndrome is also be cured. And many more conditions are available. It is one of the best medicines ever made the diseases so curable.
Juices formed by cranberry fruits
Cranberry is cultivated in a cooler region of America, Europe, and Canada. But not only the fruit of the cranberry is consumed but its juices are also formed. Its juice is such good in taste that everyone must like it and willing to have it. It is also a rich source of Vitamin so one can easily have without any tension of side effects. While manufacturing the juice of it the contents and the nutrients value per 100g and gives us energy ,which are used to mix are as follows:-
- Carbohydrates – 12.2g
- Sugar – 4,04g
- Dietary fiber- 4.6g
- Fat – 0.13g
- Protein – 0.39g
- Water – 87.13g
- Vitamin A – 3mg
- Beta-carotene – 36mg
- Lutein as well as zeaxanthin -91m
- Thiamine – 0.012 mg
- Niacin -0.101 mg
- Pantothenic acid – 0.295 mg
- Vitamin B6 – 0.057 mg
- Vitamin C – 13.3 mg
- Folate – 1 mg
- Vitamin E – 1.2 mg
- Vitamin K – 5.1 mg
- Calcium – 8 mg
- Iron – 0.25 mg
- Magnesium – 6 mg
- Manganese -0.36 mg
- Phosphorus – 85 mg
- Sodium – 2 mg
- Zinc -0.1 mg
All these percentage is calculated approximately in rough manner by USDA Nutrient Database for adults only. Raw cranberries are also eaten but its juice is more popular among all. White cranberry juice is manufactured from the regular cranberries which will be harvested after maturing the fruits. But before they come to this stage they cross its characteristic of being red in color. The yields are harvested early in a lower beds but the flooding give rise to damage the vines, actually not severely. Cranberries are used to store in a cool area by which it can be easily sold in the market looking fresh. For doing this it has to be stored in shallow boxes or in the bins which allow the air to pass through them and prevent from damaging it. About 95% of the cranberries are used in making the juices, sauces, and sweetened dried cranberries and the left ones are sold as a fruits.
Cranberries are the important source of its juices; it can be either sweetened for making its juice or for it may be mixed with other juices to lessen its severe taste. Many of the cocktails are mixed with cranberry juice including cosmopolitan. A tea spoon full sugar is used to add with the juice to make it more sweetened which may also be a cause of obesity. Usually the cranberries are firstly cooked into compote or one can say in the form of jelly, which is also known as cranberry sauce. Thus this type of preparation can be traditionally served along with roasted turkey, which is in the form of English Christmas dinner, as well as in other countries like Canadian, along with US holidays are used for thanking for giving the holidays. The cranberries are also used for filling in the cones of ice creams, muffins, cakes and as a stuffed bread sandwich. As in baking it is often combined with the flavor of orange. It can be used in making wine also. It is made in some of the cranberry growing areas of US as well as in Canada with the combination of either the raw or the juice of the cranberries.